Volcanic Winter – Would Humanity Survive & How Long Would it Last?

Yellowstone Park is located in Wyoming within the United States. It might seem like an unassuming place, but it actually houses a super volcano that poses an immense risk of volcanic winter. This article will briefly discuss what a super volcano is and then go further in-depth with the discussion of what a volcanic winter entails and the threat it poses to life on this Earth.

What is a Volcanic Winter

A volcanic winter is when the eruption of a volcano is so massive (as witnessed with super volcanoes) that it results in immense levels of ash. This ash being shot-up in the sky will make it so that for anywhere from a few years to several decades, there is a drastic reduction in the climate’s temperatures. This is due to the great deal of ash literally blocking-out rays from the sun.

The magazine, “Science,” has an article discussing how one of the biggest eruptions and longest-lasting volcanic winters ever occurred about 74,000 years ago. This happened when a massive volcano located in Sumatra that was known as Toba had the most massive eruption on Earth within the last 2 million years.

Within weeks it caused a global volcanic winter that could have gone on for decades. This possibly led to animals dying-off and humanity almost going extinct. Essentially, Toba may have resulted in a reverse version of the greenhouse effect, cooling Earth till it wiped-out a good deal of crops, resulted in massive extinctions of animals, and otherwise nearly ended humanity.

That was long ago, so how bad could things possibly get today? Much, much worse.

What is a Super Volcano

Yellowstone Supervolcano

Simply put, a supervolcano is a volcano capable of immense eruptions that can devastate the local area; and due to enormous volcanic ash drastically affect the world’s climate.

The USGS has a helpful chart that discusses volcanic levels, and it illustrates how Yellowstone has one of the bigger super volcanoes present.

Basically, a super volcano poses a threat not only to the region where it explodes, but it can also devastate the entire Earth.

“An eruption could end humanity. Scientists are in agreement it is not likely to happen anytime soon, but an eruption would put so much ash into the air it would darken the skies of the United States and creating a volcanic winter over the planet,” according to a science correspondent Dan Cohen who was interviewed by UK’s Daily Express (credit). This leads to our discussion of the process known as volcanic winter.

How Long Could a Volcanic Winter Last?

A volcanic winter brought about by the volcano at Yellowstone erupting could possibly last 70 years or longer, as the Star-Tribune (credit) discusses all major volcanic winters in recent history have lasted longer than anticipated.

Yellowstone has had small eruptions off-and-on but is generally due for a major eruption every 600,000 years. It has been about 630,000 years since the last big eruption, as an article from the Star-Tribune points out.

A volcanic winter brought about by a major eruption from Yellowstone now would be cataclysmic. Even if our planet has been demonstrated to be suffering from global warming, a sudden shift in the other direction will NOT be helpful; and in fact, this jarring back-and-forth in the global climate will bring a great deal of ecologic collapse Worldwide. The world’s population 74,000 years ago was a fraction of what it is today.

Our planet relies on a large number of agricultural and farming resources to stay fed. Should a volcanic winter occur it is feasible to think that for decades there could be mass-starvation and dying among humans due to there just not being enough food production.

As Alan Hall of Quora (credit) points out, there is a large deal of power in the world, but food is an issue. We can’t grow crops when it is winter. Meat would become a highly-expensive and rare thing; the focus would be crops.

He goes on to say that things could get so drastic the rain-forest would be mowed-down to assist with crop production. And it isn’t unthinkable to assume people could turn to cannibalism to both control the population and keep themselves fed.

With almost no recorded history of a major volcanic eruption leading to a volcanic winter, it is difficult to know what might happen precisely, but it surely wouldn’t be anything good.

Would We Survive Volcanic Winter?

Humanity would most likely NOT perish from an extended volcanic winter, but there would certainly be tough times ahead. There have been some minor instances of volcanic winters before that were weathered by humankind.

In 1815 the Indonesian volcano Mount Tambora exploded and caused global temperatures to drop so much it made 1816 the so-called. ‘Year without a summer,'” according to Live Science.

Humanity would survive an extended volcanic winter, but it would never be the same. Drastic changes in climate and where food can be grown would result in countries that once had minimal political power suddenly wielding a great deal of influence. Tropical regions would now be ideal and cool enough for growing crops. Other locations would have wide-swaths of their land rendered uninhabitable (cold regions would become wastelands).

Resources that for centuries have inspired wars such as oil would become secondary to things like livestock or crops. International cooperation would become an important focus for much of the World as without countries being able to rely upon one another a large chunk of the planet will literally face the possibility of starving to death.

The most powerful weapon that inspires respect won’t be a nuclear bomb; it will be being able to grow food and getting others to grovel for it.

How to Prepare for a Volcanic Winter

Were a volcanic winter to occur due to an eruption at Yellowstone certain demographics would be better prepared than others. People who consider themselves, “Preppers,” for doomsday-level events would most likely have an ample supply of nonperishable foods (All you need to know about food storage)

Nonperishable foods would literally become worth more than gold in a world where there is a genuine possibility there won’t be enough food for everyone to eat.

Survival in a World dealing with a volcanic winter will entail the careful distribution of resources for those who prepared for the possibility of such a cataclysmic event and being willing to defend said resources against those who would challenge them for it.

Crime would undoubtedly rise in a world suffering from a volcanic winter, but instead of people stealing jewelry or cash they’d be trying to snatch cans of fruit or freeze-dried meals.

Martial law would most likely have to be imposed in highly-populated areas where there would simply be too many people and not enough food to go around. It would be a difficult time, but humanity would survive (albeit quite possibly with many lives lost).

Eventually, as the volcanic winter ended, things would return to some degree of normalcy as they were the decades before the climate suddenly went awry.

Let’s Be Optimistic

There has been some research into such super volcanoes as Toba. Some data has concluded that its volcanic winter was possibly not as bad as some scientists previously thought.

One article from The Guardian discusses how even a massive eruption such as Toba’s may have been a lesser catastrophe and, “…with archaeological evidence from India, which shows that our ancestors survived the mega-eruption…another eruption may be due. It is, however, somewhat reassuring to think previous ones were not as bad as at first discussed.

The main concern is arguable that 74,000 years ago, there was a lot fewer people, technology, and the general need for resources. It isn’t far-fetched to think that what was a “Minor catastrophe,” long ago would be a major world-decimating one today.

Closing Observations

When it comes to super volcanoes one that poses a high risk is the one located in Yellowstone National Park. There is a very real danger that it could explode and lead to a volcanic winter. A winter that lasts for decades and throws the world into chaos.

Even if the volcanic winter turns out to be relatively mild, it would still have a significant impact on crops and food consumption. A volcanic winter may limit resources for everyone to a minor degree. Or put a massive number of people at the risk of starvation and lead to a surge in crime and war.

Those who prepare for the risks of a sudden change in climate will be better off than many. They will need to conserve and defend their resources carefully. Many lives would be lost and major changes around the world would occur. I still believe, however, that humanity would survive a volcanic winter should a supervolcano erupt.

We’ve lasted thousands of years upon this planet and will continue to do so, even when things aren’t easy. The most crucial aspect of all this to prepare yourself.

There really is little warning of when the next volcanic winter may occur. Other than that Yellowstone’s volcano looks like a prime candidate to cause it.

Bulletproof Backpack and Inserts – Do they Work? All the FACTS!

The increasing sense of terrorism and violence around the world have made the need for new ways to protect ourselves and our family all the more prominent throughout the last years. The global market has turned the interest of the public in the direction of a new category of backpacks, with the name of bulletproof backpacks and inserts.

All the more people choose to buy such a piece of equipment, nowadays to ensure better protection against attacks that may put their life at risk. Do, however, those bulletproof backpacks and inserts really work?

How can Bulletproof Backpacks Protect Individuals?

A bulletproof backpack has a shape and size similar to a normal backpack. However, each backpack has an inner shield that is made of a synthetic fiber that provides the backpack with the necessary stopping power when a bullet tries to pass through it.

Most of these backpacks are actually comprised of a specific nylon material that is designed to surround tightly the inner surface of the backpack, protecting it from incoming bullets. The total weight of the backpack is not significantly higher compared to normal bags.

A typical bulletproof backpack normally weighs between 3 and 8 Ibs depending a lot on the level of protection it offers.

Can Bulletproof Backpacks Protect Us at All Times?

BulletBlocker NIJ IIIA Bulletproof Tactical Backpack

The material that a bulletproof backpack is made of has been designed by manufacturers to comply with Level 3A standards, established by the National Institute of Justice. That practically means that having a bulletproof backpack can efficiently protect you from most handgun bullets.

Some common guns that belong to the category mentioned above are the 9mm rounds in a 40 or 45 caliber gun.

There are also, some more expensive backpacks that promise protection against a wider variety of guns because they are lined with a polyethylene plate that complies with Level 4 standards, established by the NIJ.

Those guns are designed to stop 7.62mm rifle rounds. A backpack with a Level 4 standard can protect wearers from machine guns, as well as from assault rifles, including the AR-15 style rifle. However, it is a lot heavier, and it will cost you a lot more money.

Is the Normal Level of Protection Enough?

Most recorded shootings have occurred with the use of a normal handgun, not a rifle or any other heavy gun. This means that a backpack with a 3A standard is sufficient for almost every attack that may occur out there.

Therefore, a bulletproof backpack in this category can be a really helpful tool in protecting people, both adults and children from everyday attacks.

For example, if you are concerned that something bad may happen to you while you are walking home from your work or while your children are getting back from school, then this type of backpack can really help you.

Where will I Use a Bulletproof Backpack?

The global market on bulletproof backpacks was developed when some major attacks in schools and universities were observed. For this reason, they are mainly purchased by parents who are afraid of their children’s health. However, students are not the only ones who can benefit from such a piece of equipment.

Attacks or accidents have been observed in the workplace, as well. Particularly if you live in a state with increased levels of attacks, you may feel safer when you have such a backpack to cover your back.

People who work in public areas should also, consider the option of such a backpack. Government agency workers or people who work in dangerous positions, like bankers should also, consider a means of protection that is both legal and easy to use.

What Are Bulletproof Inserts for Backpacks?

bulletproof backpack inserts

There is a variety of inserts that can be included in a backpack and make it withstand shots from guns and pistols. They come in a big range of prices depending on the quality of the material and the type of protection they can offer users.

Bulletproof inserts are usually versatile. Therefore they can easily get transported to other backpacks or bags. They can make the backpack really protective against gunshots, and they can give the wearer protection similar to that of a police officer.

Every single panel is made of a soft body armor that weighs about 10 oz. This makes it perfectly safe and light for even small kids. The material is waterproof resistant, and it is not affected by light and humidity.

The panels can also, fit inside a backpack without much effort and convert your usual backpack into protective armor.

Click here for our recommended Bulletproof Backpack Insert from Amazon.

Are Bulletproof Inserts Effective?

A variety of tests have been made to ensure the efficacy of different bulletproof inserts. The results are generally quite optimistic, but there is still place for improvement, particularly in terms of broad coverage against different guns and rifles.

The tests have proven that in general, an effective insert of good quality can block a bullet from entering the backpack you are wearing. Every insert has a different size and shape, but as a general rule, all the inserts are light enough and really flexible. They actually look like small cushions that add a layer of bulletproof protection to your backpack.

A lot of experiments have been made outdoors by companies in order to ensure the ballistic protection a bulletproof insert can offer to someone who chooses to buy it for his backpack.

After continuous shooting from a long distance, no serious damage was observed to the backpack. In some cases, some slight damage was recorded in items inside the backpack, like books and notebooks, but that was mainly associated with repetition of shooting.

Under normal circumstances, there will be no shooting at a certain target more than one to two times in case of an attack.

Where Can you use a Bulletproof Backpack Inserts?

A bulletproof insert is usually added in a backpack to make it extremely strong and immune to shots by usual handguns. However, a bulletproof insert can also, protect the things you store into your backpack, as well.

For example, an expensive computer will be 100% protected from any type of accident, including a strong drop on the ground. Therefore, by using an insert to equip your backpack with, you will not only protect yourself from unpleasant incidents but the content of your bag, as well.

Why is a Bulletproof Insert for Backpacks a Good Choice?

A bulletproof insert has a lot of advantages. It is flexible, light, easy to use, and it can be easily transferred to different backpacks and bags.

It usually has an anti-microbial layer that will prevent the development of any kind of fungus or nastiness on the outside of it.

Although it can add a small amount of rigidity in your back when the weather is too hot, you will typically not even notice it in your backpack.

A bulletproof insert is less expensive than a brand new bulletproof backpack, and you can also, place it in different bags depending on the one you wish to carry with you each time.

People usually find it really hard to get involved in a dangerous situation, mainly when they live in a quiet neighborhood. However, a lot of attacks have been recorded in random places, like workplaces, shops, schools, and universities.

Studies have shown that the number of those attacks has increased considerably throughout the last years. For this reason, having extra protection can be the key to surviving.

That’s the whole philosophy behind the development of bulletproof inserts. However, we should still have in mind that in some categories of the general population, like small children, there are other factors that can affect the whole incident, for example, the child’s capability to use and place the backpack appropriately.

Which Solution is Better?

A question many of us have concerns the need to buy a whole bulletproof backpack or just a bulletproof insert and apply it ourselves to the backpack of our choice. The truth is that the second solution can be more affordable and more flexible.

However, there is always the danger that a child may take the insert out of the backpack, and that will result in a fake sense of security. For this reason, particularly for younger ages, it is preferable to opt for a whole backpack.

The level of protection is also, an important factor when you have to choose between a backpack and an insert. Most backpacks offer a Level 3A protection. If you wish to have a Level 3 or 4 protection, you should probably go for an insert, particularly due to availability reasons.

In modern times, the amount of terrorist attacks or other types of assault has increased a lot. People worry about the life of themselves and their families. For this reason, the demand for an effective solution has been the aim of many companies.

Bulletproof backpacks and inserts can play an important role in the fight against unpleasant incidents or even accidental assaults. They can be a useful means of protection against gunshots, and they can be safely used by both children and adults. After all, caring about our own safety is something we should not take lightly.

What Would be Affected by an EMP? Learn the FACTS!

Of any potential disaster threats that we face today, what is perhaps the scariest one is an EMP attack. In its full scale, an EMP attack has the potential of taking back our current lifestyle to about a century back, forcing us to lead a similar lifestyle to that of our forefathers. With the complete loss of electricity, most of our appliances would suddenly turn into useless junk with the infrastructure we so much depend on coming to a startling halt!

What would be affected by an EMP? Virtually all electric devices which are connected to an electrical outlet or charger during an EMP will all be damaged and probably rendered useless. Even electronic devices that are not connected to an electrical outlet will be fried, unless they are protected inside a faraday cage.

If statistics are anything to go by, the EMP commission predicts that within just the first year of a full-blow coast to coast EMP attack, 75% of Americans would die. How? Besides just the lack of access to essential amenities such as food due to lack of transport, hospitals would also be almost non-functional especially with vital machinery powered by electricity no longer operating.

What is particularly unique about the EMP attack is that it has the potential to destroy virtually anything that is connected to the electric grid. However, the most pertinent question is if electric-reliant devices are what would most be affected, does it mean that we can purchase battery-powered versions of all electric devices we own? Well, to answer this and much more questions about the EMP Attack and its impact, stick around.

What is an EMP?

Typically, an EMP (electromagnetic pulse) is an energy wave which happens naturally through solar flares and lightning strikes. Usually, it may also be induced as a secondary effect of nuclear. Also, it can be weaponized and utilized as a distinct military attack tactic.

Extremely powerful solar flares known as CMEs (coronal mass ejections) could result in an EMP-level catastrophic event if they were to hit the earth. However, the force of such an outburst would not destroy humans outright.

Generally, an EMP attack would likely be administered by a missile which is detonated high above a nation as opposed to a direct bomb blast. The subsequent magnetic energy it dispatched would crash the electric grid. While this may sound like just a typical massive power outage, it would, however, be a continual long-term catastrophe. In fact, as per the findings of a Congressional EMP Commission study, approximately a third of the entire population would perish within just a year of the massive EMP attack.

How Do EMPs Affect Electrical Systems?

EMP Effect’s on the Electrical Grid

An event as a result of a high altitude EMP (HEMP) or CME attack would occur in two distinct phases:

  • First phase: a nuclear bomb blast over a state would dispatch an electromagnetic pulse from the detonation center of up to 1450 miles, instantly zapping any exposed electromagnetic gadget. It would be followed by a second wave to finish it.
  • Secondary Phase: induced energy resulting from the initial blast would find its way into the extensive telecommunications and electronic wiring which crisscrosses the nation. This wiring would function like an antenna which sucks in the energy and sends it winding along its paths, subsequently burning everything on its path. This includes the power stations and electrical grids, with no feasible way to stop this. (How to prepare for long term power outages – full article)

The Aftermath of an EMP Attack

As per the report by the Commission, it would take an approximate 18 or more months to repair the grids, and that is if it could be done at all. Virtually all our public electric and communications networks are out of date as of now and unprotected from such an attack. It would as such be an impossible task to repair the global system with virtually no working systems to help do it.

The first to feel the effect would be the individuals relying on electric medical equipment such as life-support, dialysis, or oxygen recipients among others. What’s more, not only would we find it difficult to traverse across the nation to go to school or work, we would also not be able to retrieve our resources from the banks.

Is there anyone who is prepared for the EMP attack aftermath?

Yes… but only a few select groups and individuals. For instance, the US Air Force One, US Military as well as a few fellow preppers.

Would an EMP attack affect batteries? Well, fortunately, most batteries can survive an EMP attack notwithstanding the magnitude without getting damaged. This applies to all sorts of batteries including lithium-ion, nickel metal hydride, alkaline, and lead-acid batteries. The only exception would perhaps be the complex battery modules boasting in-built charge controllers.

How Would an EMP Affect Batteries?

Batteries should effectively survive the aftermath of an EMP attack unharmed even without any protective gear or any other measures in place. Nonetheless, it cannot hurt to follow a few precautions to guarantee their survival.

For a significant part, batteries have their unique faraday cages.’ Batteries outer portion is made of metal, and they feature no circuits or wires inside that can fry. The problem, however, is that many of us have grown so reliant on electronics that virtually nothing is powered by traditional batteries anymore. Most, if not all, of our gadgets which feature battery backups, also boast microchips and circuit boards. While batteries alone should be well sorted, however, modern devices with batteries within them need safeguarding.

What about cars?

All cars that feature electronic ignition, as well as computerized parts, will get damaged if not wholly fired in the event of an EMP. Typically, most modern vehicles feature several automated components. Most if not all cars built from 1980 onwards have electronic components.

However, not all cars will be affected by the EMP attack-although this mostly depends on when they were created. However, most vehicles running on the road at the occurrence of the EMP attack will immediately go off, hence the reason why numerous individuals will instantly lose their lives if the attack affects the whole nation.

With this in mind, it, however, depends on the EMP device’s strength with regards to whether vehicles will function after the EMP. According to the findings of various controlled tests conducted, it was found that cars could initially shutoff on the eve of the EMP attack but would later somehow run again.
Besides typical cars, other vehicles like motorcycles, ATVs, planes and many others that comprise computerized components will also be destroyed by the EMP.

What about hybrid/electric vehicles? Unfortunately, these types of cars will indeed be wiped off by an EMP. Even in the event they somewhat miraculously do survive, the distinct electrical outlets that power them will certainly not.

What Items Would be Affected EMP Attack?

1.  Everything connected to the power grid/charger:

Virtually all electric devices which are connected to an electrical outlet or charger during an EMP will all be toast.

2.  Heaters

All heaters (except for DIY Heaters only) and in particular electric heaters are of course going to be fried also. This is primarily because the electronically-operated pumps, electronic control circuits, as well as ignitor transformers will all be rendered non-functional.

3.  Solar Panels:

With solar panels, there is no one-for-all answer, it is quite complicated and here is why: while solar panels can effectively withstand an EMP attack, the solar charger controller which charges the batteries, as well as the voltage inverter which converts the power from the battery, will all be in pathetic shape if not completely fried.

Unless you own another solar charger controller and voltage inverter well safeguarded in a unique Faraday Cage, you can be sure that your solar panels will not function that well.

4.  Battery Powered Devices:

Just like with solar panels, when it comes to battery-powered devices, they are expected to survive the aftermath of an EMP effectively. However, there are several conditions to be fulfilled to guarantee this (and this is inclusive of your phone).

First, for battery-powered devices to survive the EMP, they need not be connected to the electrical outlet or charger on your wall in any manner, form, or way.

What’s more, on the wake of an EMP attack, these devices should be in a concrete or metal structure which could primarily function as a makeshift Faraday Cage. However, if at the time of the EMP attack/blast you are outside with your device, then they will most probably get damaged, if not completely fried.

This does not just affect your phone, but it also includes tablets, phones, as well as items like flashlights (hence the need to keep quite a number of candles on hand to serve as backup).

5.  Computer Operated Homes

In recent time, the popularity of smart homes has taken the world by storm. However, in case of an EMP attack, these types of households (computerized homes) will not fare any good. This is to say that all your touch screen and voice-activated home appliances will not be in a good functional state after the EMP happens and this is courtesy of the fact that they are structured out of solid-state material.

6.  The Power Grid

While this is not necessarily an everyday item, it is, however, something which we depend on virtually every single day.

The power grid is expected to be effectively wiped off in the wake of an EMP especially one that goes off within a particular radius, or even perhaps the entire nation; provided it is sufficiently robust and is released high enough in the atmosphere.

What Everyday Items Will Survive The EMP?

EMP’s Effect on Old Cars

As opposed to a hurricane which you can predict or watch over the news for weeks before it finally hits you or like a tornado with a miss and hit localized damage, it is quite different with an EMP attack-it will be sudden and definitely without any warning!

Items which are most probably going to survive the aftermath of an EMP are batteries as well as electronics which either protected by barriers or hardened pre-attack.

However, there are a few surprising items which will likely also survive the aftermath including: non-digital appliances, (like older washing machines) cars built before year 2002 (with no computerized components), vintage electronics (like vintage radios), and virtually anything solar or battery-powered (including tablets, cell phones, as well as solar panels). Why and how would they survive? Here is a close look…

1.  Solar Panels:

As we had noted earlier, despite the fact that solar charger controllers and voltage inverters of solar panels may not survive an EMP attack, the solar panels, however, should come off reasonably unharmed.

2.  Older Cars:

If you own a car that was made before the 1990s, there is a great possibility that it will survive the aftermath of an EMP. Since this time, the overall number of electronic circuitry and microprocessors has substantially increased.

There are several old models and makes of vehicles that should survive just fine. Some of these cars include Toyota Hilux pickups, GMC Blazers, Chevrolet Blazers, Jeep Cherokees, Ford Broncos, as well as Land Rovers among other car models which were made before 1990 (or as is with the case with Broncos and Blazers, before 1985).

3.  Simple Electronic Devices:

Any typical electronic device which lacks the solid state controls standard with modern vehicles should escape harm after an EMP. Some of the common examples include generators, power tools, and appliances among others.

Although virtually every solid state control is expected to be damaged after an EMP, all the other components in those gadgets should remain in good condition. Just ensure that you have none of these devices connected to an electric charger or the electrical grid; otherwise, they WILL indeed get fried.

4.  Battery Powered Devices:

Again, as earlier mentioned, battery-powered gadgets which are not connected to electric chargers or the power grid should also effectively survive the aftermath of an EMP.
All these items would need to be disconnected at the time of the attack, with any vulnerable parts safeguarded from the initial EMP wave.

In Conclusion

In essence, there is nothing like being over-prepared. Even if the EMP attack never really happens (which we should hope never happens at all), it is better to be safe than sorry. What’s more, it is also a great idea to get as many other individuals both prepared and informed about this as much as possible.

Artificial Superintelligence – How ASI Could Destroy Humanity [2019]

Technological advancement like artificial superintelligence has always been met by apprehension; especially when it ventures into the unknown or when the venture is to create innovations that will change how we experience life. That was the case with airplanes, electricity, space travel, the creation of atomic bombs and a whole host of other discoveries. However, nothing has come close to the apprehension, as well as the excitement that is associated with Artificial superIntelligence. And how ASI could destroy humanity beyond 2019.

As with most things science, pop culture has helped fuel the speculation. From Star Wars, to Stanley Kubrick’s Space Odyssey, the Matrix, Terminator, Resident Evil and more recently Transcendence, Her and other such like movies, the suggestion has been that as machines acquire more cognitive abilities, it is inevitable that they will seek to supplant human beings in the hierarchical order and that would spell the end of humanity.

Dismissing such an apocalyptic conclusion of events is easy. However, when you realize how far AI has come, and that a majority of the researchers in the field believe we will achieve Artificial General Intelligence in the next two decades, the issue of having machines or systems that are more intelligent than humans raises concern.

There is even further cause of worry by the fact that many in the field while agreeing artificial intelligence has an unlimited potential to learn and gain knowledge and refuse to rule out superintelligence, they have no idea at the moment of how to control or prevent the dangers that AI could pose to humanity.

What Is Artificial Superintelligence?

To fully understand artificial superintelligence and the negative impact it can someday have, an understanding of the various levels of artificial intelligence is essential.

The basic definition of artificial intelligence is a machine that can simulate or mimic the intellectual abilities of human beings primary learning. That is the ability to get new information and the rules governing the use of this information, reasoning (using the rules and data to reach definite conclusions, and problem-solving. Other skills depending on the purpose of the AI may include understanding language and speech.

There are three levels of AI;

3 Types of AI
3 Different Types of Artificial Intelligence

1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)

ANI is the simplest form of AI and the one currently in existence. The difference with the rest of the AI still under research and development is that ANI specializes in a single task or field.

ANI is also present with varying abilities, for example, a calculator and the computer games AI against which you play. It is also known as eak’ AI because it perceives and acts on its situation without the concept of the outside environment.

Still, even among ANI, there are sophisticated systems such as the Google search engine, SIRI, and algorithms for large online stores like Amazon and Alibaba as well as online movie stores like Netflix.

Even advanced sperm filters, marketing algorithms such as the infamous Cambridge Analytica system and the ANI’s used in stock exchanges.

The difference between these modern ANI and the earlier forms is that they can go backward in time and study past behavior. The ANI will then store the information along with whatever has been preprogrammed in them. They will then use this information in current and future instances to make more accurate decisions.

There is further ongoing work in the ANI field that should see them able to diagnose and recommend medical care to patients, prepare taxes, offer legal counsel and drive cars.

2. Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is the next step up of artificial intelligence. It means artificial intelligence with human-level capacity across all areas.

While most ANI’s can replicate or even surpass the human ability in one area, they cannot match it or perform any function, in a different space.

The generalist aspect of the human mind is what makes it unique and powerful. An AGI would need to be able to learn as the human brain does through its own experiences with the world instead of just the data programmed in it.

It is projected that the world would see the advent of AGI’s in the 2030s

3. Artificial Superintelligence (ASI)

Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) is the last step in AI, and it will have the ability to surpass or outperform the most intelligent humans in every intellectual factor and by an extreme margin.

Its learning and knowledge will be infinite. It will also have the ability to create better machines than humans which various thinkers believe would result in an intelligence explosion; an event that is feared will leave humans left behind in the evolution curve.

The attainment of artificial superintelligence is the most feared stage of artificial intelligence because it is highly unlikely that any intelligent form will want to lose its autonomy to a less intelligent one.

Artificial Intelligence Negative Impacts

AI negative impact
Artificial Intelligence Negative Impact

Even before getting to the artificial superintelligence level, there are already several negative impacts being experienced as a result of AI.

These include;

1. Massive Job Losses

Every technological innovation has always resulted in a massive loss of employment. Most of the time these have been compensated by the opening up of new fields in the market place; and most of the time requiring little training.

However, artificial intelligence is set to redefine the whole working culture. It does not require supervisors, and as it spreads in all industries and aspects of society, many people will find themselves jobless or working far fewer hours.

From drivers, security people, teachers to doctors, lawyers, pilots, and stock traders, most professionals will be out of work with some already experiencing the effect.

It is also not feasible to suggest all these people will suddenly become programmers and even then AI itself will be doing that.

It will cause upheavals as people look for ways to earn livelihoods and adapt to changing work culture.

2. Pressure on Society’s Support Systems

Most people who have been rendered redundant and who lack any skills to adapt to the job market usually end up on welfare.

However, when a large number of people are rendered obsolete, an already stretched system will not be sufficient any more; and then everyone will feel the impact as taxes rise to help support the social programs.

3. Invasion of Privacy

The use of AI has already led to many issues with privacy. From spying people’s online activities to their daily activities when interacting with other AI-powered systems like Cortana, Echo, and other assistant software.

The already mentioned Cambridge Analytica is a case in point in which AI was used not only to spy on people’s preferences but further use the information obtained to target the individuals with political messages meant to change the outcomes of elections worldwide.

It is a serious ethical and criminal issue, and its discovery after many incidents had happened.

4. The Need for Trial and Error Before Perfecting the System

Every innovation requires some level of testing, and there is risk associated with the initial use in public. However, with all other technology, the creators fully understood the system and knew their potential dangers resulting in the placement of safeguards.

The problem with recent forms of AI is that they are still prone to glitches. Even in the field, the creators do not yet understand how deep learning occurs and how the AI will react to new case scenarios.

Such a situation has happened before in one case, Microsofts chat robot in the persona of a girl turned into a profane Hitler-loving robot after encountering new user behavior in the form of baiting.

A fatal example was the case of a self-driving Tesla where the AI autopilot, camera, and front-facing radar all failed to detect a tractor-trailer mistaking it for a variety of things resulting in an accident.

In Tesla’s defense, however, the driver was repeatedly warned to take over the wheel. Unfortunately, the driver was unresponsive. Here is a link to the full article regarding this incident.

Such risks can only increase with the widespread use of AI as the creators miss out on vulnerabilities and need more years to fix emerging issues.

Dangers of AI

AI Dangers
Dangers of Artificial Intelligence

Even as AI advances, the negative impact can only get more significant due to several AI dangers. Some of the risks are inherent due to the way AI works, human error or intentions.

Here is a look at ways in which AI can become dangerous.

1. The AI is programmed for destructive activities

As is often the case with any scientific field, all nations are involved in a race to be the first to possess the most advanced form of AI.

This has inevitably led to the integration of AI into the military. As the AI systems gain more autonomy, we could get to a point where war begins when an AI system responds to either rogue commands or wrongfully interpret a threat.

We could see a scenario when this happens, and no one’s able to shut them down as the AI follows a set goal of defense.

2. Powerful AI systems

Even if Artificial Intelligence’s programming only allows it to do one thing, in the wrong hands, this could have a devastating impact. From fraud through identity theft, cyber attacks, market crashes and even war are all possible.

Unlike other war weapons that require massive capital investment and can be affected by physical distance, all one needs, in this case, is access to an AI system or a good programmer.

The increase in devastating cyber-attacks across nations and corporations, even security organizations like the FBI, mean such a threat is always lurking and maybe just a matter of time.

3. Lack of Fully Aligning One’s Goals to the AI

The lack of aligning one’s goal to the AI’s or the AIs wrongful interpretation of inputs can result in a fatal result on both the user as well as the rest of the public.

Take the simple case where you have an AI-powered vehicle with advanced abilities. If you request to get somewhere fast, the AI will try to find the most efficient way to do which may clash with other people resulting either in traffic accidents, and you may have little to no control in the midst of all these events.

Writing efficient orders relies on how specific the goal can be, which, unfortunately, is not how human function and speech work. On the other hand, AI cannot fully translate human intention through speech.

4. Lack of Regulation and Ethical Framework in Developing AI

As already mentioned, developing AI has the advantage of being less capital intensive compared to other technological innovations. It means a group of skilled programmers can create an A.I. in the privacy of their own basement.

Given that most of the frontrunners are keeping their breakthroughs secret until they unveil their new product, little is known about any safeguards and threats posed by each advanced AI introduced for public use.

This lack of regulation means humanity could find itself using AI with capabilities users do not understand, and even the creators have no control or safeguards.

The Existential Threat To Humanity

The main danger that most scholars in the field of tech and science like Elon Musk, Bill Gates and Stephen Hawking are apprehensive about is what may happen the moment AI gets to the Artificial General Intelligence level and Artificial Superintelligence.

These two levels of artificial intelligence are no longer an object of science fiction but only a matter of time. It is surprising that little research has been spent on the kind of safeguards that can be put in place.

These AI safeguards would be there to avoid the ultimate danger AI may pose to humanity. Like the TERMINATOR, for example, minus the time travel of course.

The argument behind the existential threat posed by AI to humans is made on three primary fronts.

First, a super intelligent AI may reach the level of self-awareness; and start having its own goals different from what was programmed in it.

Given its intellectual capacity, it seeks to achieve these goals which may not align with humanity’s goals. Another argument based on orthogonality states that a machine even with superhuman intelligence will still stick to its original purpose.

The only challenge is that such AI will develop self-preservation as a subgoal; And Like humans, the AI would seek to fulfill this through any means necessary.

They would regard any obstacles including being switched off as threats to its goal creating a source of conflict.

The final argument borrows the self-preservation premise. This time ASI would use self-preservation to pit themselves in competition for the limited resources. One resource, in particular, is energy. The ASI could then seek to eliminate humans to avoid competition for these limited resources.

Conclusion

Whatever your inclination towards AI, it is essential to know that surveys done among researchers in the field has the most pessimistic ones saying Artificial Superintelligence (ASI) will be reached in the next 75 years. The optimistic researchers would have that technology invented much sooner.

It could ultimately be man’s last innovation should intelligence explosion occur. And the consequences may have a catastrophic impact on humankind’s existence.

Crossbow vs. Compound Bow – Best Type of Survival Bow?

In a worst-case scenario, when everyone else reaches for the guns or knives, what are you left with? That’s right, good, old-fashioned bows and arrows. Well, to be more specific, crossbows or compound bows, as these as two great survival instruments.

What’s the best type of Survival Bow? Crossbows and compound bows can both be used for hunting, allowing you to maintain a steady food supply. They also transport easily, and, if you have a well-built model, shouldn’t fall apart on you when you need them most in a survival situation.

As you see in the title, this is crossbows versus compound bows for survival, which means there can be only one. Which is better, the old-school crossbow or the modern marvel the compound bow? In this article, I’ll tell you.

What Is a Crossbow?

Crossbow vs. compound bow
Is the Crossbow Best for Survival?

Before I can discuss whether you want a crossbow or a compound bow for survival situations, I thought it’d be best to clearly define the differences between the two. Let’s start with crossbows first.

Crossbows date back to the 1500s when Medieval Europeans and East Asians used them as weapons of war. The first iterations of the crossbow are credited to ancient China. As we entered the 10th century, Europeans began making their own crossbows with wooden bows. At the time, these were referred to as lath or prod.

By the time the 13th century arrived, more materials were incorporated into the bows. These included animal tendon and sinew, horn, and wood. These composite bows, as they were called, were more powerful because of all the materials used in their construction. In the next century, steel was the select material for making crossbow prods.

The design of a crossbow is largely unchanged from centuries and centuries ago. The main part of the crossbow is its stock, which is also called the tiller. This is the frame of the bow. Near the stock, you’ll find a trigger mechanism so the string can let the arrows fly as well as well as a taut space for the bowstring.

Europe and China had two different ways of making their crossbow locks. In Europe, they favored the rolling nut lock. The frame’s top had a transverse slot for the string. The notch’s bottom would be pierced through so a vertical rod could fit into it. There was also a tickler near the rod, which is a lever at the rear of the crossbow. This was scrapped in favor of a nut, which would keep the string secure.

In China, they used vertical trigger locks instead of rolling nut locks. This lock was a bronze structure with four pieces that were held together by dual rods. They were also made of bronze.

Crossbows are still used today, mostly for paramilitary and military applications as well as for scientific, leisure, and hunting purposes.

What Is a Compound Bow?

Crossbow versus compound bow
Compound Bow Best for Survival?

Next, there’s compound bows, a more modern creation. These utilize pulleys and cables as part of the bow’s levering system. The bow itself boasts angled and even curved limbs to accommodate the strings. These limbs are also designed to be stiffer. While you might think this is less advantageous for you, the user, it’s actually the opposite. That stiffness means you don’t have to put as much energy into each shot. Sounds pretty good, huh?

Unlike crossbows, which have existed for centuries, compound bows are a much more recent creation. Back in 1966, Holless Wilbur Allen created the first crossbow. He got it patented by 1969, and they have caught on ever since.

Compound bows have eccentric cams. No, this doesn’t mean they’re quirky. It’s a mechanical engineering term that refers to circular discs and the way they move. When on a rotating axle, the circular discs do not sit centrally on the axle as they turn. With a compound bow, that means you get a greater shooting radius.

There are dual cams that have their own tracks. The outer track goes through the bowstrings while the inner track has cables that connect it to the other cam or limb. You can adjust both cam tracks for your own draw-stroke profile, choosing between soft-drawing and hard-drawing according to your needs.

Another feature of the compound bow is a riser. This is a stiff part of the bow that allows for the quiver, stabilizer, or sight to be included. Today, 7075 aluminum alloy is the choice material for making risers, with carbon fiber, magnesium alloy, and aluminum also sometimes used.

Compound bows are very much favored today for hunting and target practice.

What Type of Bow Is Better for Survival?

Now that I’ve defined both crossbows and compound bows, it’s time to answer the question of which bow is better for survival purposes. To do that, I’ll go over several different points, such as ease of use, speed, and accuracy to help you decide which bow is more exceptional.

Price Differential Between the Crossbow and Compound Bow

Depending on your budget, there’s a crossbow for you. Obviously, the more high-end models are going to be more expensive. These will be made with the best materials and are intended for long-term use.

So yes, while you can get a cheap crossbow for under $200, for survival purposes, it’s worth it to invest in the highest-quality bows. These may start at $500 and up. Remember, you’ll also need bows and accessories like a shoulder sling for easier use, which means you could be spending $800 to $1,000 for everything.

Crossbows are undoubtedly less expensive than compound bows. These bows start at around $1,000, and that’s without any arrows or accessories. Some of the best models cost $1,500, so don’t be surprised if you drop more than $2,000 for a well-made crossbow and all the gear and accessories you need.

Ease of Use of Crossbows and Compound Bows

When it comes to ease of use, both bows have their advantages. Here are some reasons the compound bow controls well.

  • Rubber-coated blocks are included as part of the pulley system. As you pull back, the blocks will work to create a type of wall for pulling the string along. This lets you choose your own draw length for more reliable shots.
  • There are fewer vibrations and less recoil to worry about when shooting with a compound bow. This is due to the way the limbs move as well as the cables. The limbs will curve inward to control recoil.
  • You also don’t need a control cable for most compound bows because the idler wheel and single cam are designed to be different from one another.
  • Arrows may be able to go further, again due to the cams, especially the soft cam. Using a harder cam may lessen the total distance you can achieve.
  • As mentioned, it takes less energy to shoot arrows using a compound bow because of the cam system.

That said, dry loosing or dry firing is a risk when you use a compound bow. This is when you don’t set up any arrows but still shoot the bow. Obviously, if you’re doing this, you’re either testing the bow, or it was a mistake. Try to limit dry firing if you can, because it could break down the components of the bow.

Many archers who rely on both crossbows and compound bows for survival purposes do mention the semi-steep learning curve associated with using a compound bow. Just looking at these bows, you can quickly see how complicated they can be. If you’ve never handled a compound bow before, it’s easy to make mistakes, like dry firing. You might want to start with a crossbow then, which has fewer moving parts (and thus less risk of them breaking down). Once you get familiar with your crossbow, you can upgrade to a compound bow if you want.

Best Type of Bow for Shooting Speed

As for how much time you’ll spend loading your arrows, the compound bow is the winner. That’s because of the lower draw weight these bows boast. However, it’s crossbows that can shoot more quickly. This again has to do with the draw weight. Since this weight can often exceed 100 pounds with crossbows, the arrows will fly faster than they would with a compound bow.

If you’re trying to catch an elusive animal while hunting, then the speed at which you can shoot your arrows is very important. It could be the difference between you and your party eating or not eating for the day.

Best Type of Bow for Accuracy

Speed is one thing and accuracy is another, and compound bows are a more accurate shot than crossbows. This is attributed to the above-mentioned pulley system with its rubber-coated

blocks. This gives you an almost customizable shot. If you want a shorter draw length, you can achieve it. The same goes for a longer draw length or even one that’s mid-length.

It’s not advised you switch between draw lengths once you choose one. When you settle on a single draw length, you get an anchor point you can rely on again and again during that round of shooting. That can improve your accuracy.

As I discussed earlier, you do need to be familiar with a compound bow to enjoy this accuracy. Just like with any bow, you’ll very rarely if ever pick up a compound bow for the first time and begin shooting perfectly with it. It takes time to learn and adjust to it, so practice often!

The Verdict

Both crossbows and compound bows have their advantages. Instead of picking one over another, it’s worth it to take the time and the money to invest in quality models of both bows. Having bows that shoot quickly and accurately is important. Crossbows are better for speed while compound bows are more accurate.

In some instances, being able to shoot fast will matter. That said, if you miss all the time, then a compound bow would be better to have. That’s why you shouldn’t limit yourself to one type of bow over another, especially in a survival scenario. You need all the chances you can get to hunt food and ward off predators, and both crossbows and compound bows are adept for those jobs.

How to Survive a Volcanic Eruption – The Facts Will Keep You Alive!

There are many things you can do to prepare yourself and your family from a volcanic eruption. Usually, we would have a fair bit of warning before the actual eruption but being ready to bug out at a moments notice can be critical in ensuring your safety. Do you know what to do to get ready before a volcano erupts?

How to prepare for a volcanic eruption? The best way to prepare for a volcanic eruption is to put together an emergency supply kit to bring with you in the event of an evacuation. Following the advice from local officials, is critical to ensure your safety.

How to Stay Safe During a Volcanic Eruption

When preparing for a volcanic eruption, you need to not only be prepared to evacuate, but you also need to be ready to stay put, either in your home or in a shelter.

You should also have an evacuation plan fully developed in case the worst does happen. Everyone should have an evacuation plan, not only for volcanoes but for whatever natural disaster that is more prevalent in your part of the world.

The best way to figure out an evacuation plan is to know what route to take during an evacuation. You should avoid major highways because they will most likely be blocked full of traffic. Draw a map that would consist of rural backroads that would have you avoid a traffic jamb.

Make sure that everyone in your family reviews and understands the escape plan. An important thing to have ready alongside your escape plan is an emergency supply kit that is more geared to the dangers of a volcanic eruption.

Volcano Emergency Supply Kit

The supplies you will need in a volcano emergency kit will differ from an emergency kit catered to hurricanes or floods. The reason being is you not only need to have supplies for power outages, food, and water but you will also need supplies to protect you against the volcanic ash fallout.

Exposure to volcanic ash can harm your health, especially your respiratory (breathing) system. To protect yourself from the deadly ash while you’re either evacuating outdoors or while you’re cleaning the ash that has gotten inside your home or shelter, use an N-95 disposable respirator. These types of respirators are also known as “air-purifying respirator.”The most important thing is to follow the directions for proper use of this respirator. You can find more information about these types of NIOSH-Approved Disposable Particulate Respirators by following the link which will bring you to the official CDC Website (Center for Disease Control).

Survival Kit Items for Volcanic Eruption

Here is a list of things that will prove very useful if you’re in a situation where you have to evacuate from a volcanic eruption.

Emergency supply kit for volcano eruption
volcano emergency kit

1. Crank Flashlight or Regular Flashlight with Extra Batteries

I personally always tend to go with a crank flashlight for all my emergency kits. You can forget about the crank flashlights of the past where you would crank for minutes to receive only seconds worth of light. With the advent of LED bulbs, you can have a very bright light for quite a long time with just a minute of cranking.

If a crank flashlight isn’t for you, then go with an LED flashlight and have some spare batteries on hand. Having to lug around spare batteries can add extra weight if you’re traveling by foot, so keep that in mind.

The hand crank flashlight I recommend is a combination of a flashlight and radio. One of the best features is that it also acts as a portable battery pack capable of charging your cell phone by USB. Being able to charge a dead phone in a dangerous situation can mean the difference between life and death.

2. First Aid Kit and Manuel

Having a first aid kit is a great start but having the first aid manual alongside the kit will make a complicated first aid situation much more manageable.

Most people, myself included used to never think of having a first aid manual, but after receiving many first aid training courses, I’ve begun to appreciate the value a first aid manual.

A typical first aid manual discusses what to do for the standard, mild, serious, and life-threatening situations you may face; in a step-by-step manner, using illustrations and photographs to help you understand the problem at hand.

Although it is designed to provide you with a good knowledge base, it is strongly encouraged that you also take a formal first aid course from an organization in a nearby community that offers such training.

These organizations include the American Red Cross, the American Heart Association, EMS agencies, and local hospitals. It is also important that you refresh your skills on a regular basis.

You can download and print a free first aid manual PDF from The American-College-of-Emergency-Physicians-ACEP.

3. N-95 Respirator Mask

Having a way to defend yourself against the volcanic ash fallout is essential. Breathing in the toxic ash can lead to significant health concerns and even death.

The most efficient respiratory protection for adults is to wear a well-fitting, industry-certified facemask such as an N95 mask (also called P2, FFP2 or DS2 in various parts of the globe).

The certification will be marked on the mask. These types of masks are typically disposable. You can also buy a better quality non-disposable N95 mask to protect yourself from volcanic ash.

These types of mask are highly effective at filtering volcanic ash and are commonly designed to fit an adult face. You should buy a smaller N95 mask for your children to make sure to have adequate air filtration available.

Be aware that using these highly effective masks can make breathing more difficult; especially if you’re already suffering from cardiovascular disease. Talk to a healthcare provider about whether a mask like this is safe for you to use.

N95 repertory masks come in a multitude of different shapes and sizes. Some of these masks fold out into shape, and some have a ready-made cup-shape. Some mask is equipped with a valve on the front to improve comfort by letting warm, humid air out.

If fitted well to the face, all of these masks will be highly effective at filtering volcanic ash.

You should know that some non-certified repertory facemasks state that they are designed to filter ‘PM2.5’ (small particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter), which is most likely to be the most harmful fraction of the volcanic ash.

The thing with these non-certified masks is that they are often time not designed to fit tightly on your face correctly. So, in the end, they may not be very useful in protecting you against ‘PM2.5’.

If you’re unable to provide yourself with an adequate mask, you can still protect yourself by using a nuisance dust mask but only as your last resort.

These types of masks will not offer as much protection against volcanic ash as a certified N95 respirator would so do not stay outdoors for too long while the ash is falling.

Emergency workers or cleanup crews might need a different type of mask to better protect themselves against long term volcanic ash exposure.

4. Eye Protection (Goggles)

If you’re going to be outdoors while there is volcanic ash flying through the air, you will need adequate eye protection.

Make sure you have a pair of protective goggles in your emergency bugout kit. You don’t need to spend a lot of money on a pair of goggles that will protect your eyes from volcanic ash.

Snowboarding or motorcycle goggles can work very well for eye protection but make sure that they protect you against dust particles and that they fit tightly to your face so no ash leaks inside.

You should buy goggles big enough, so you’re able to wear your regular prescription glasses inside them. Make sure to take off your contact lenses. The volcanic ash will latch on to the lenses and could damage your eyes.

5. Sturdy Shoes

Having a pair of comfortable, sturdy shoes set aside in case of an emergency can be essential if you need to evacuate the area by foot.

Vehicles will become clogged with volcanic ash and become useless. Trekking by foot might be a necessity if you’re close enough to the volcanic eruption or if your area is overcome with the ash fallout.

My choice for a high quality yet affordable hiking boot are the “Columbia Newton Ridge Plus II Waterproof hiking boot.” These waterproof and slip-proof hiking boots are lightweight. They would serve you well while traversing through rough terrain.

6. Essential Medicines

Packing the right medication is essential, especially if you’re going to be on the road for an extended period.

Firstly, the most important medication to have in your bug out bag are your prescriptions. You should stow away at least one week’s worth of prescription medication in your volcano emergency kit to ensure you have enough in case you can’t make it to a pharmacy in time for a refill.

Aside from your prescriptions, you should have some over the counter medication to bring with you in case you need to evacuate the area. You should also have these meds on hand if you need to stay put in your home or nearby shelter.

Here is a list of over the counter medication I recommend to have in an emergency supply kit;

  • Aspirin/Acetaminophen
  • Ibuprofen
  • Antacids
  • Antihistamines and Anti-allergens
  • Bismuth Subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
  • Cough/Mucus Control
  • Laxatives
  • Sleep Aides
  • Saline Spray/Solution
  • Vitamins

Some of you might think that this list of OTC medication is a bit of an overkill to have in an emergency kit; but the for the amount of money they cost and space they take in your bag, it might not be such a bad idea.

Some of these meds might not apply to you but might be helpful to others. Medication can easily be traded for food and water, or other essentials you might forget to have with you on your travels.

Medicine is one of the best items to have on hand for trade, so keep that in mind.

7. Crank Radio or Battery Powered Radio

Yes, again with the crank technology. I honestly have no idea why more people are not recommending crank radios or flashlights. What would you rather have in your bag, a small hand crank radio or a battery-powered radio and be forced to carry extra batteries which will give you bag some added weight?

The Ironsnow emergency hand crank radio (Amazon) is the one I own and recommend. This emergency radio is explicitly designed to help you survive all types of natural disaster.

It features three charging options, solar, hand crank, and via micro USB. The rechargeable 1000mAh battery guarantees that this radio will have power when you need it and micro USB ability mean it can also work as a cell phone charger when other sources of power are unavailable.

8. Food and Water

Now this one is obvious, every emergency kit should have some food and water in them; but how much should you bring with you if you need to evacuate? This would certainly depend on whether you’re on foot or traveling by vehicle.

Everyone should have enough food and water to last them at least 72 hours.

Here is a full guide for how to properly store water in your home for long term use.

Here is a for a full guide on how to prepare a DIY long term food storage with food that will be good in a pantry for many years.

These two guides will give you enough information to adequately prepare enough food and water to overcome anything that comes your way. Well, within reason of course.

One last recommendation regarding food; do not forget to pack a non-electric can opener inside your emergency pack. A can opener is one item that can easily be overlooked by even the best of preppers.

volcano eruption
Evacuation of volcano ash fallout.

If You Need to Evacuate

If you are told to evacuate your home due to a volcanic eruption you should follow the authorities instructions. Though you might feel safe in your home and wait out a volcano, doing so could prove very dangerous to you and your family.

Volcanoes blow hot, hazardous gasses, ash, lava and rock that are powerful and devastating to anything around the eruption.

Preparing to Evacuate a Volcanic Eruption

Follow these steps to safely evacuate a volcanic eruption near your home.

  • Turn on the radio or television for volcano updates from the local authorities. Have a crank radio ready and tune in to the NOAA frequency to be up to date with any new developments in your area.
  • Keep an ear out for any warning signals such as emergency or disaster sirens.
  • Prepare your volcano emergency kit and also have things ready in your vehicle in case you need to evacuate right away. You should have things like food, water, flares, booster cables or a booster battery pack, maps or GPS, tools, first aid kit, fire extinguisher, sleeping bags and a flashlight with spare batteries.
  • Review with your family your emergency evacuation plan and gather all the emergency supplies you have aside for this type of emergency. Do not forget to pack at least one week supply of prescription medication.
  • Have your vehicles gas tank filled up before the volcano begins to erupt because the gas stations will most likely be very busy at this time due to a panicked public and people not being prepared beforehand.
  • If there are no vehicles available, make arrangements with family or friends for transportation out of the danger zone. If this is also not possible, follow the instructions from authorities on how and where to obtain safe transport away from the volcanic eruption.
  • Place your vehicle under cover, if at all possible. Exploding debris could cause damage to your vehicle making it inoperable during the worst of times.
  • Place livestock in an enclosed area free from the ash fallout if possible. Make a plan for your pets in case you have to go to an emergency shelter. Many shelters will not accept animals.
  • Fill sinks and bathtubs with water as an additional supply for bathing.
  • Make adjustments to the freezer and refrigerator’s thermostat. Set them to the lowest temperature possible. If there is a power failure, food will stay cooler for a longer period of time.

When you are evacuating,  avoid downwind areas, and rivers that are flowing downstream, of the volcano. Wind and gravity will carry the flying volcanic rocks and ash down these paths.

If You Are Ordered to Stay Put During An Eruption

  • Keep listening to your radio or television continuously until you are advised that your area is safe or you are told to vacate your home. The local officials may evacuate specific regions that are at the highest risk in your town.
  • Tightly close and lock all windows and doors leading outside of your home, so the volcanic ash does not enter.
  • Shut off all central heating and air conditioning systems that would be drawing in outside air.
  • Close the fireplace damper and completely close the fireplace if at all possible. At our family home, we have steel doors that give an airtight seal to the fireplace. This is something to consider if you live close to an active volcano.
  • Organize all of your emergency supplies and assure that all family members know where the supplies are located.
  • Make sure the radio is in working order and that you have extra batteries if a crank radio is unavailable.
  • Make your way to an interior room without windows, preferably above ground level.
  • Take your pets with you, and do not forget to have extra food and water for them.
  • It is a good idea to have a hard-wired (non-portable) telephone in the room you select as your safe room. Call a trusted friend or family member that lives far away from the volcano. Have them ready to receive a phone call from you to report any potentially life-threatening emergency. One important fact to consider is that telecommunication equipment may be overwhelmed or damaged during this type of event.

Conclusion

I know staying calm in these types of devastating emergency can be difficult. But this is not the time to panic if you want yourself and your family to stay safe.

I’ve never had the misfortune of having to live through a volcanic eruption. I’ve learned a great deal about how to survive a volcano and the volcanic ash fallout by being prepared. All this information was gathered through various government websites such as  https://www.cdc.gov and https://www.ready.gov among other trusted sites.

Where Is It Safe If Yellowstone Supervolcano Erupts? You Should Know!

 

Wim Hof Breathing Method FACTS – 2 Days Could Save Your Life [2019]

Have you ever heard of Wim Hof, also known as the Iceman? I had only become familiar with the Wim Hof breathing method and cold therapy a few weeks ago. I must say that I was intrigued by the benefits of the Iceman breathing method. What found out in the past weeks is the Wim Hof Method cold hold the key to survive extreme cold if stranded during winter.

I was browsing YouTube when I came upon a vice documentary called “Inside the Super Human World of the Iceman.” The thing is, however, is that Wim Hof is not superhuman at all. Anyone can learn his basic breathing methods, and he goes on to prove that in the documentary.

The question a lot of skeptics are probably asking themselves is if the Wim Hof method actually work? It does because I’ve been following it for a few weeks and I am blown away by the effects.

Wim Hof’s motto is: “What I am capable of, everybody can learn.” With the Wim Hof Method (WHM), he teaches people around the globe, from regular people like myself all the way to celebrities and professional athletes. He shows us how to control our body and mind to achieve extraordinary things.

Before I go into details about how to learn the Wim Hof method, I will provide a bit more information about who this guy is and why he began the journey of becoming the “Iceman.”

Who is Wim Hof

So who is Wim Hof? Wim Hof is Dutch extreme athlete best known for the impressive amounts of world records he holds regarding cold exposure; That is where he got the nickname “The Iceman.”

Born on April 20, 1959, he is the father of six children, four of which are from his first wife who tragically took her own life in 1995. Wim’s journey in the realm of cold exposure could be directly correlated to his wife’s death.

I remember listening to a lengthy interview of Wim Hof on the Joe Rogan podcast not too long ago. Wim said that his breathing method and cold exposure helped him immensely in overcoming depression and the hard times of raising 4 of his children alone.

Hof says that his “Wim Hof Method” can help in treating symptoms from ailments such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis, diabetes, clinical depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and cancer.

The Origin of The Iceman

Wim Hof’s nickname ‘The Iceman” came from his many great achievements such as the Farthest Swim Under the Ice; Because of the Wim Hof Methode, Hof can keep his core temperature from decreasing into a hypothermic state.

Most people’s body would go into hypothermia within minutes in this type of condition, but Hof was able to avoid this entirely. He’s also able to comfortably hold his breath for the duration of the swim, another benefit of his breathing method.

Another Guinness World Record Wim Hof held was for the longest time endured fully covered in ice. As you can see in the Image, his body is submerged in ice, and he’s able to stay in there for an incredible 1 hour and 53 minutes. Don’t try this at home; I certainly won’t be.

In my opinion, his greatest achievement is climbing Mount Everest wearing only a pair of shorts and boots, nothing else. He mentioned on the Joe Rogan podcast that the only reason he even wore footwear was that it was a requirement. He needed to be wearing spiked boots because of the risk of slipping. Slipping along the edges of Mount Everest would inevitably lead someone to their death.

He did also admit that he realizes that the human body is not made to climb Mount Everest wearing only shorts and boots.

Another one of his many accomplishments is running a half marathon in the arctic circle barefoot. Hof also climbed Mount Kilimanjaro more than once wearing only shorts.

Learning The Wim Hof Method

My journey of discovering the Wim Hof Method began a few weeks ago, and I am still surprised at how easy I can get myself in the meditative state to withstand the cold.

The Wim Hof method three main components

Take in between 30 and 40 deep breaths and then follow each breath by exhaling. The important thing to note is not to fully exhale the air out of your lungs, exhale as you would normally.

After exhaling your final breath, hold your breath for between one and three minutes. Before I began the WHM, I could only hold my breath for no more than 30 seconds. Now I can easily hold my breath for two or more minutes after the final breath.
When you feel the urge to breathe you need to inhale fully and hold for 15 to 20 seconds and then let the air out of your lungs naturally.

Depending on how many deep breaths you took and how long you were capable of holding the exhale, the final breath should give you a significant head rush.

You should repeat this process at least three times. I usually repeat the breathing exercise either four to five times. It is all depending on how much time I have and how I feel physically and mentally.

You will know if 30 breaths are enough if you feel your fingers tingling and other tingling sensations throughout your body. If you don’t yet feel a tingle at 30 breaths, go all the way up to 40 breaths.

The Immediate Effects of the WHM

Once round one is complete, you will feel more mentally alert than before you began the breathing exercise. This alertness effect comes from stimulating the endocrine system.

Something about the Wim Hof Breathing Method causes the body to receive an uptick of adrenaline and noradrenaline to an above average level. This would imply Hof’s breathing method is creating a kind of fight or flight response within the body.

Changes in the Body During the Iceman Breathing Method

One change the WHM cause is your PH level. The reason your body’s PH levels increases are because breathing deeper than necessary means you exhale a lot more carbon dioxide than you usually would when breathing normally.

Most carbon dioxide converts to bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the bloodstream. When you end up lowering your carbon dioxide by breathing deeply, your PH levels will increase.

Your blood will temporarily become less acidic and more alkaline. The increase of PH levels in the blood only lasts for approximately 80 seconds.

Making your blood more alkaline can have impressive results when it comes to athletic performance and cold resistance. On a different note, however, alkalosis can lead to constriction of the brain’s blood vessels, and contribute to calcium reduction which could increase nerve and muscle stimulation.

Increased alkaline is the reason your fingers will begin to tingle while performing the WHM. Some people could also experience cramps or muscle spasm if they perform the deep breath step for a more extended period, I have not had that issue.

Another side effect of exhaling so much carbon dioxide is that the majority of your oxygen becomes stuck in the blood. The reason for this is carbon dioxide is what releases oxygen from the blood so your cells can absorb it.

After the 30th Deep Breath

After the 30th deep breath, you hold after the exhale. Holding your breath will enable the carbon dioxide to increase and extract oxygen out of the bloodstream directly inside the tissue.

Since there is no new oxygen entering your lungs while you’re holding your breath, your blood saturation will begin to drop. One of the outcomes of this is that your body will start to adjust more rapidly to low oxygen environment like the top of a high mountain.

This is how people following the Wim Hof Method can climb tall mountains like Mount Kilimanjaro in record times. Mountain climbers would typically have to climb the mountain at a slower pace to avoid acute mountain sickness because the body needs to adapt to low oxygen levels at higher altitudes.

How to Adapt to High Altitude Using the WHM

Wim Hof High Altitude
Benefits of the Wim Hof Breathing Method while in high altitude.

The reason people practicing the Wim Hof Method can adapt to high altitude environment and climb mountains in record times is because of an Erythropoietin (EPO) discharge in response to the decrease of oxygen levels in the blood.

EPO stimulates the creation of red blood cells, therefore, increasing the oxygen distribution ability in the body.

While you’re holding your breath when performing the Wim Hof breathing exercises, Some receptor in the brain will trigger and give you the urge to breathe. This happens because of too low oxygen levels or too high carbon dioxide levels in the body.

I usually do not fight against these signals when they become uncomfortable. Hof urges people not to resist the urge to breathe and to take a final deep breath and hold for 15 seconds. You will notice that you will be able to hold your breath longer every day by doing Hof’s breathing method.

At a certain point during the breathing exercises your endocrine system will be stimulated leading to a strong release of hormones. The majority of these hormones released into the body are adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Wim Hof Benefits on the Immune System

Wim Hof Immune System
Wim Hof’s Immune System Study

What I really like about the Wim Hof method is the fact that actual science tried to disprove Hof’s claims and ultimately failed. The science community referred Wim Hof as a freak of nature and that his so-called superhuman abilities could not be easily replicated on another person. This is where the scientific study becomes interesting.

A scientific study was conducted at Radboud University by Matthijs Kox and Peter Pickkers; where individuals who were doing the Wim Hof method for seven days were injected with bacterial endotoxin.

The bacterial endotoxin the individuals were injected with was a component of the E. Coli bacteria; and will trick the immune system and cause it to overreact.

Over 99 percent of healthy people subjected to this endotoxin will immediately begin to experience flu-like symptoms. These symptoms only last a couple of hours and do not cause any harm to the body.

Scientists usually perform these types of test on people in hopes of learning the effectiveness of a specific immune-suppressant medication.

The interesting thing they found out while performing this study is the individuals that were trained in the Wim Hof method showed significantly less flu-like symptoms after coming into contact with the endotoxin.

During the study, they also injected twelve individuals that had not received training in the WHM. All twelve subjects negatively reacted to the endotoxin by experiencing flu-like symptoms.

The conclusion of the study states;

“In conclusion, the present proof-of-principle study demonstrates that the sympathetic nervous system and immune system can be voluntarily influenced through practicing techniques that are relatively easy to learn within a short time frame. It, therefore, could have important implications for the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, especially auto-immune diseases.” You can find a full article on the Wim Hof Study by clicking the link.

What Doesn’t Kill Us

What doesn't Kill Us
Wim Hof What Doesn’t Kill Us

After reading the book “What Doesn’t KILL US,” written by Scott Carney, I wanted to share this information. I did not only want to share this info to people that want to learn about a way to potentially survive being stranded in the wilderness during the dead of winter; I also wanted to share to people suffering from autoimmune disease and other pain-related diseases what I learned from the WHM.

In the book, one man says that he credits Hof for saving his life. He goes on to say that by combining the Wim Hof breathing technique and ice-cold showers he is able to manage the disease he has with far fewer drugs than when he was first diagnosed; and that Wim Hof has kept him out of a wheelchair.

Scott Carney goes on to explain that a person he interviewed was able to drastically reduced the pain and swelling caused by rheumatoid arthritis after only two months of combined cold exposure and the Hof breathing method. He went on to say that before he began TWM, his index finger was swollen to the size of a plum and would need doctors to remove small pieces of bones to alleviate some of the pain.

I wanted to talk not only about surviving the cold using Wim Hof’s Iceman method but also about all the other health benefits. I do this in hopes that someone reading this who suffers from constant pain would keep an open mind and give this a try.

My Conclusion of the Wim Hof Breathing Method and Cold Exposure

So to conclude this article, I am currently on week number four of the Wim Hof breathing method and cold exposure, and I must say that I feel great. As a person that has suffered from depression, I can honestly say that this has helped me a great deal and that I feel much better after only minutes of doing the breathing technique.

I’m not one to jump on the latest trends, but when I heard of a guy that climbed Mount Everest wearing only shorts and boots, I had to know what this was about.

I also have not taken a warm shower or bath in the past four weeks. I only use cold water to bathe, the colder, the better. It wasn’t easy at first but just after a few days did I get used to it and looked forward to my next cold exposure; be it a cold shower, an ice water bath or just sitting outside as I did tonight in -25C (-6F) temperature for 10 minutes.

As I said, the cold exposure is a bit difficult at first, but the payoff is a thousand times higher than the initial cold shock your body receives. Give it a try and let me know in the comment section how the WHM makes you feel!

One important thing to take into account is to never do the breathing portion of the exercise in water or while driving because of a small chance of causing you to blackout. Do not try this before going to the Wim Hof Website and learning the proper breathing method and safety precautions.

Thank you for reading and don’t forget to share this article with your friends and family that could benefit, and also, check out our YouTube channel!

How to Survive a Nuclear War – (With Video)

Could the Rage Virus From 28 Days Later Really Happen? Find Out!

I’ve been fascinated with doomsday movies for a long time. I like the ones that could actually become a reality; those are the scary ones. In this article, I will talk about one such movie and the virus that turned people into raging killers. One question, Could the Rage Virus in 28 Days Later actually happen?

Is the Rage Virus Real? No, the rage virus is not real. The rage virus is a fictional virus from the movie 28 Days Later and it’s sequels 28 Weeks Later. It does not mean, however, that a Rage Virus type pandemic could someday become a reality.

The rage virus is an infection that most people confuse with becoming a zombie, but there is almost no comparison from a zombie to an individual infected with the rage virus.

First off, someone infected with the rage virus is alive, they don’t die and reanimate and become undead like zombies.

I have read some articles that have mentioned that the rage virus from 28 days later is not as far fetch as people would like to think.

Rage Virus Real?

The rage virus, also known as “The Infection” is a fictional virus from the movie 28 Days Later, but I will explain in this article how real an infection such as this could someday ravage the world.

While they were filming the movie, there was two German Scientist that had said that it’s not very hard in today’s information age to be able to create a virus.

The two German scientists were able to create a synthetic Poliovirus. The scary part of this story is that they were able to gather all the necessary material from the internet. Click here for their complete article.

There seems to be a new fear in the western world about infectious diseases. These viruses are something people can’t see or smell, unlike an atomic blast.

Of course, a world-ending event like a nuclear war is something that could happen, but a global wide man-made pandemic is indeed not out of the realm of possibilities.

28 Days Later Rage Virus Explained

28 Weeks Later Rage Virus
28 Weeks Later Rage Virus Infection.

The rage virus is simply known as “the infection” in both 28 Days Later and its sequel, 28 Weeks Later. 

This virus is a lethal blood-borne virus that sends the infected person into a state of severe and uncontrollable anger, hence the name Rage Virus.

Two scientists were ultimately responsible for creating the Rage Virus. So, the Rage Virus was indeed man made even though it was entirely accidental. Events like this could happen in real life.

The Rage Virus was created by using the Ebola Virus as a means to transmit an inhibitor that regulated anger control issues. Now if that’s not irony, then I don’t know what is!

How Did the Rage Virus Start?

Two Cambridge scientist, fictional characters in 28 Days Later Clive and Warren were hired to try to isolate the specific neuro-chemicals that that causes anger and excessive aggression in humans.

As I mentioned above, they were attempting to develop an inhibitor that regulates and control anger issues.

After the two scientists successfully produced an inhibitor; Warren assumed that broadly delivering the inhibitor in the form of a pill or even by aerosol wouldn’t work well enough to successfully “vaccinate” the population.

Since the aerosol or pill form would not work in spreading the anger inhibitor, the two scientists came up with a horrible idea to use the Ebola Virus as a delivery system.

After two weeks, several isolated genomes in the Ebola Virus reacted to the inhibitor and created a mutation. This mutation caused the inhibitor to have the opposite effect.

Rage Virus Mutation
Genetic Mutation of the Rage Virus

Instead of repressing anger, it causes the infected person to become full of constant and uncontrollable rage, thus creating the Rage Virus.

In the movie 28 Days Later, the virus began to spread from infected chimpanzees that were being used as a test subject. The chimpanzees were released from captivity by a number of animal activist.

The activist all became infected themselves after the chimps attacked them.

Both the infected chimps and activist were now fully infected with the Rage Virus; that’s basically how the virus began to spread across Cambridge and eventually throughout Great Britain.

How Would the Rage Virus Spread?

The Rage Virus highlighted in both 28 Days Later and 28 Weeks Later spread through the blood and saliva and is extremely infectious to the point that just one droplet of infected fluid is sufficient to infect a host.

The Virus is typically spread through bites from the infected but can also be distributed through saliva transfer.

Other ways the Rage Virus can infect someone would be from an infected vomiting infected blood in a hosts face. Even a single drop of blood getting into someone’s eyes or mouth will infect the victim.

28 Days Later Rage Virus Symptoms

Once a host is infected it will only take between 10 to 20 seconds before they succumb to the infection. 

It also appears that the amount of time it seems to take for the Rage Virus to take over at hosts depends on the amount of the infected fluid that is directly exposed to the victim.

To give you an example, someone would almost instantly be infected if an infected vomit a few mouthfuls of fluid directly on the persons face.

If a single drop would only infect a host then it would take upwards of 20 seconds before the Rage Virus would begin to affect the victim visibly.

The host’s first symptoms of the Rage Virus would be experiencing excruciating spasms and uncontrollable twitches and convulsions.

As the virus is taking over the host, they will also begin to bleed from the eyes.

The infection will also cause capillaries to hemorrhage making the host frequently vomit blood and bleed from the eyes and nose. 

The eyes of the infected host will almost immediately turn scarlet red.

This is followed by violent and uncontrollable anger and aggressiveness coupled with the suppression of greater intelligence. From that point on the infected will seek out and brutally attack anyone they encounter.

The Rage Virus grants the infected host great quantities of grandeur and endurance, therefore, permitting them to spontaneously rampage over miles and miles of territory and overrun entire towns.

Rage is a strain of the Ebola virus and while its psychological manifestations are more like those of Rabies; it does preserve some of the physical symptoms of Ebola-like characteristics like the red eyes, internal and external hemorrhaging and bleeding.

Primates are seemingly the only animals able of carrying the red fibers. It is undiscovered what would occur to a non-primate animal if it were exposed to the infection.

The rage virus is also blood-borne and able of infecting only primates features; which it probably maintained from the Ebola virus from where it mutated.

How the Rage Virus Spread so Fast in 28 Days Later

First, the results of the virus were considered by the media as rioting; but the citizens soon disproved them as the infected were attacking small communities and towns as well as the larger cities.

The Prime Minister declared a state of emergency eight days following the release of the infection.

Martial law was imposed, but the army barriers defending London and Manchester were overwhelmed by the infected; Causing the remainder of the panicked public that was not previously infected to try and leave the country.

This Exodus ceased fifteen days after the rage virus was released. NATO and the United Nations quarantined great Britain.

Within the next thirteen days, British society collapsed, and Great Britain was ravaged by the infected and consumed by the Rage Virus.

Aside from the few scattered survivors, the remainder of the British people were either dead, infected or had fled during the Exodus following the initial outbreak.

The infected increasingly started to die from starvation six months after the initial outbreak; nearly all of the infected in mainland England had died.

Although there was still some infected north in the mainland, especially in Scotland, who was more recently infected and had since not died of starvation.

Six Months After the Spread of the Rage Virus

At some time, months following the initial outbreak, the rage virus dispersed from mainland Britain to Shetland.

The American military quietly quarantined the island; the infection appeared to slowly fade on the island after most of the infected died.

The US Army started to repopulate London and began to decontaminate the rest of the city.

Sadly, 28 Weeks after the first outbreak, Alice Harris, an asymptomatic carrier of the rage virus was taken into the District one safe zone.

Alice reunited with her husband Don but unknowingly infected him with rage from a kiss.

After killing Alice, the infected Don went on a violent rampage in district 1, infecting or murdering anyone he came across; igniting an outbreak of the Rage Virus in the Green Zone.

As the infection expanded throughout district 1, the US Army started shooting and killing the infected; and then ultimately both infected and non-infected civilians alike.

The Air Cavalry 5 bomb district 1 in an attempt to eliminate the rage virus; but a considerable amount of infected survived firebomb and fled into London, spreading the virus throughout the city.

Andy Harris, Allison’s son, was bitten by his infected father and consequently became a carrier of the rage virus.

Like his mother, Andy and his sister Tammy then fled beyond the English Channel and into France by helicopter. They crashed in Paris just two days after the loss of district 1.

At the moment of the crash, the rage virus had already spread into mainland Europe and appeared to be in Paris

Some people, such as Alice and Andy Harris maintain a natural immunity to the manifestations of the rage virus. If the rage virus infects one of these immune people, they become a carrier of the disease but will remain immune.

Carriers are still able to infect others though as their blood and saliva always carry the virus. They will, however not show any symptoms of infection themselves except for the white outer layer of the left eyeball partially turning red.

Rage Virus Red Eyes
Rage Virus Immunity – Red Eyes

There were only two identified carriers, Alice and her son Andy. Scarlett levy assumed that a carrier’s blood could be utilized in finding a vaccine or possibly even a cure for the infection.

Sadly though, Alice was killed before any analysis could be conducted. Andy’s fate and location after the red fire extend to France are unknown.

Could the Rage Virus Happen in Real Life?

I am sure many of you reading this are wondering if such a virus could happen the way it happens in the movie. There is one major issue with the virus regarding if it could be a global catastrophe.

The one reason I think the Rage Virus as seen in 28 Days Later and 28 Weeks Later would not be a world-ending event is because the latent period/incubation of the Rage Virus period is way too short. Virtually there could not be any “hidden carrier” to spread the virus globally.

If everyone that has the virus turns into a raging maniac within seconds, then they could be quickly contained in one country or at least one continent.

As an example of how difficult it would be to spread worldwide is that no one with the Rage Virus would ever be able to enter a plane.

Usually when a virus is globally spread is when an infected don’t know they are infected with a contagious illness and shows no symptoms while they unknowingly infect others.

Rage Virus vs. Zombies

The Rage Virus and the undead, also known as zombies only have a very few similar characteristics. One of which is the appetite for human flesh and the transmission of their infection as a result of a bite.

The similarities end basically ends there because the people infected by the rage virus are not undead; they haven’t died yet, and when they do die, they will not reanimate due to their infection.

Another significant difference between the two is that zombies are very slow; while people infected with the Rage Virus will run after their prey and there will virtually be nothing that will be able to stop them.

So if I had a choice, I would much rather be fighting zombies than a Rage infected person!

To Conclude

I find movies like 28 Days Later interesting because it is not entirely out of the realm of possibilities like the undead waking up and becoming zombies.

A Rage Virus type infection could become a reality in the controlled environment of a laboratory. You never know what scientist are trying to uncover or create these days.

It makes me wonder if someday the world will end without our planet being destroyed by humans in the process.

Please let me know in the comment section below if you have any information I might have missed; or if you think I’m way off on this topic. I welcome all comments.

Where Is It Safe If Yellowstone Supervolcano Erupts? You Should Know!

Best 18 Skills to Learn For Surviving Post End of the World / With Videos

Where Is It Safe If Yellowstone Supervolcano Erupts? You Should Know!

Something I’ve become fascinated with lately is the idea of how a supervolcano eruption could ultimately decimate the human race. Most people that visit Yellowstone national park has no clue that underneath their feet, deep underground is a raging super volcano waiting to erupt. In this article, I will go into details as to what would happen if a super volcano would erupt. I will also try to determine where is it safe if Yellowstone Super Volcano Erupts.

The big question on peoples mind is where is it safe if Yellowstone Supervolcano erupts? During the eruption, people would need to evacuate the western part of the United States and head towards the eastern seaboard to ensure their safety.

We will look deeper into the issue of where it would be safe for Americans to go and also where the most dangerous places to be during the eruption. But First, where is Yellowstone?

Where Is the Yellowstone Supervolcano Located?

About 96 percent of the land area of the Yellowstone supervolcano lies within the state of Wyoming. An additional three percent is within Montana, and lastly, one percent in Idaho. The Yellowstone National Park is 63 miles (101 kilometers) north to south, and also 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air.

Even though most of Yellowstone National Park is in Wyoming, the states Montana, Idaho, and Utah will suffer some immediate destruction.

Days Before A Supervolcano Eruption

If the Yellowstone Volcano did erupt soon, we would have a reasonable bit of advising using dimensions of temperature level and also volcanic forecasting. Researchers would most definitely give an alert if the eruption loomed.

An alert would be seen days or weeks before the preliminary eruption. Researchers would initially report to the United States federal government before all else, claiming that a catastrophic and possibly world-ending event is beginning.

I have my doubts that the government would actually tell the public, but experts seem to think they would.

Full-scale emergency procedures would commence from coast to coast. The US federal government would order a mandatory evacuation to all its citizens from the complete western part of the nation. This would most definitely be the worlds largest full-scale mass evacuation in American and also global history.

Considering that people would only have days to leave the location and also their houses there would be turmoil for those trying to leave. There would, of course, be a lot of people that would stay behind to take advantage of looting empty homes.

Mass riots would spread across major United States cities, mostly in the west and almost entirely in densely populated areas.

After a couple of days, states like Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Utah would depopulate with almost everyone going across the Mississippi River.

Sadly, however, a lot of people would surely be stuck behind. Those who are without a vehicle in the urban areas or as well as the poverty-stricken rural area would need to find adequate shelter to protect themselves from the unbelievable amount of ash fallout heading their way.

Stock markets would crash around the world with economies jeopardized from the mere expectancy of the eruption.

The days before the eruption would certainly be loaded with panic, dread as well as significant shifts in demographics. Evacuees would absolutely make sanctuary eastern of the Mississippi or as for they might go.

What Would Happen If Yellowstone Erupted

Then one day the Yellowstone volcano begins its massive eruption. In less than ten minutes, the states of Montana, Idaho as well as Wyoming are literally wiped off the map as lava and ash blast through the land.

If the eruption were moving slowly enough, we would begin to see large changes in the activity in the geyser basins. The inevitable explosion would be around ten times larger than the eruption of Mount St. Hellen.

Watch the 4-minute video to see a play by play of the 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Hellen. An explosion equivalent to 1500 Hiroshima nuclear Detonation.

Massive amounts of ash travel into the atmosphere as an ash cloud forms across the mainland USA. Up to a thousand-mile radius is covered in 10 feet of ashes making two-thirds of the country a barren and uninhabitable wasteland.

The amount of ash that goes into the earth atmosphere could possibly cause a global volcanic winter which would negatively affect the entire world.

After a week post-eruption, the government struggles to stay in control. The ash cloud would make air travel impossible as blankets of ash divide the nation in two and the people left in the western parts are now stranded.

In various other parts of the globe, many crops and also livestock will most likely die, leading to millions of fatalities from starvation. It is difficult to predict how the rest of the world would react to this kind of catastrophe.

Where Would It Be Safe If Yellowstone Erupt?

Head East! Like I mentioned above, the states of Montana, Idaho as well as Wyoming would be the most affected by the initial blast. I’m including a photo below of the projections some scientist believes would be how the catastrophic event would unfold.

Yellowstone Eruption Danger Zones
From Zone 1 to Zone 6 – Danger Zones of the Yellowstone Supervolcano Eruption – photo credit; YouTube

Zone One would extend a radius of a hundred miles with over 70,000 people are living. If there were no successful evacuation attempt most, if not all of these 70,000 residences would die almost instantly.

Remember, 1500 times larger than the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb! West Yellowstone and Mammoth are the two major cities in Zone One that would be destroyed.

Zone Two would be approximately one hundred miles from the eruption. The earth in the second zone would break apart and unleash blazing hot gases and cover the landscape with ten feet (3m) of volcanic ash at temperatures around 750ºF (400ºC).

Past the second zone, the initial survivability increases but you would still need to head east as fast as you can because all types of travel would be impossible. The reason for this would be a significant amount of ash in the atmosphere.

The local wildlife and agriculture land would greatly suffer for decades to come.

Beyond zone 6 would be where you would be the safest in the United States. The entire eastern seaboard would still receive a small amount of volcanic ash fallout; But Florida, and from New York, all the way up to Maine would be safe for the short term.

The state of Alaska and of course Hawaii would most likely be safe as well. This all depends on which way the wind is blowing because the wind will greatly determine where most of the ash will fall.

The ash will not only destroy crops and kill most of the wildlife, but it will also significantly compromise the structural integrity of buildings across the western US. The volcanic eruption would also interfere with electronic communication; making it difficult to call for help or be able to reunite with loved ones.

Yellowstone supervolcano geyser
Yellowstone supervolcano geyser

If Yellowstone Erupts, Is Canada Safe?

Parts of Canada would be safe if Yellowstone’s supervolcano erupts. But not all of Canada would escape the initial and longterm damage caused by this catastrophe.

The Maritime Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfound Land & Labrador), Quebec and Ontario, might escape the fallout altogether and become the safest places to be in Canada.

Of course, I would rather be in Nova Scotia versus Ontario. The farther you are from Yellowstone, the better.

The Northern Territories might also become a safe haven for Americans and Canadians alike escaping the danger zones. Just like America, Canada’s population would disperse wherever is the opposite direction of the volcanic ash fallout.

Let’s hope we would have enough time to make arrangements for our families to get to safety long before the eruption.

Volcanic Winter

Many scientists believe that a supervolcano eruption would trigger a volcanic winter. Much like a nuclear winter, a volcanic winter is when there’s enough Ash in the atmosphere to cool down the planet by one or two degrees.

Two degrees doesn’t sound like much, but this shift in temperature could cause the deaths of Billions of people. Those deaths would not be caused by ash filled lungs but would be caused by starvation. A volcanic winter would cause the decimation of agricultural crops around the globe.

To put all of this into perspective, the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) cause a mid-summer frost in the State of New York and a June snowfall in New England.

The following year is still known as “the year without Summer,” that eruption was classified as a VEI-7 (The Volcanic Explosivity Index).

The picture below will put the difference between the different VEI when comparing different historical volcanic eruption. Especially the difference between VEI-7 and the Yellowstone supervolcano’s VEI-8.

Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) Credit – volcanoes.usgs.gov

To Conclude

We all need to realize that Yellowstone’s eruption is not a matter of “IF,” its a matter of “When”! The when however could be as soon as next year or could be in well over 1000 years from now; But when there is an eruption at Yellowstone, it could be an earth ending event.

All these scenarios are just hypothesis; no one knows precisely what will happen during and after this type of eruption because the last supervolcano eruption was many thousands of years ago.

Knowledge is power; it’s wise to know at least where to find safety when a catastrophe like this happens.

Can The United States Stop a Nuclear Missile?

 

18 BEST Ways to Conserve Water That Works / Water Conservation Tips

With the current water shortage crisis triggered by unstable weather patterns, locating methods to make the best use of the water we do have has come to be a focus of preppers far and wide. In addition to knowing the best ways to find, harvest, purify, and of course, proper water storage, it is essential to create a lifelong practice of water conservation.

Water Conservation Tips Pinterest Pin
Water Conservation Tips / Pinterest Pin

Some of the best water conservation tips are 1- Installing low water yield toilets. 2- Only flush when necessary. 3- Taking shorter showers. 4- Install faucet aerators throughout your home.  5- Check faucets and pipes for leaks. These conservation tips are just to name a few. Check out our full list below to learn more about water conservation.

The bottom line is that mindful water conservation approaches will allow you to make of the most crucial of resources. You should not only learn how to conserve water when living through a drought or other types of crisis, but you should also use these practices in your everyday life.

Why Is Water Conservation Important?

Have you ever heard what is going to happen in nine years concerning water consumption around the globe? Well, in nine years, 3285 days, 78840 hours, four million seven hundred and thirty thousand minutes, two-thirds of the world population will be experiencing what is called “water stress.” This information comes directly from the United Nations Water Agency.

People living under water stress and stressed water conditions are when there is not enough water for agricultural and domestic uses. In nine years there will be around eight billion people living on this planet, and If two-thirds of these people suffer from water stress, we will have a big problem on our hands.

Water conservation and the lack of water is an issue that will not only affect future generations; it will also directly affect almost everyone alive in the present.

Food and agriculture is a massive consumer of water with over 70% of all freshwater worldwide. Agriculture makes up 82% of water consumption in poverty-stricken countries. So you see the dilemma? Not enough water means not enough food for not only lower-income countries, but all countries around the world will feel the direct impact.

I’m not a farmer, so I have no idea how and if there is even a way to reduce the water consumption they use for their crops. Perhaps there are ways for farmers to use water more efficiently but as I said, I can’t comment on that because I don’t know enough about their water situation.

What I can do however is give each and everyone one of you some useful and easy tips on ways to conserve water at home.

Saving water can additionally expand the life of your septic system by reducing soil saturation and also lowering contamination because of leaks. Straining community sewer systems can also trigger untreated sewer to move to lakes and rivers.

The smaller the amount of water flowing through these systems, the lower the possibility of air pollution. In some neighborhoods, expensive sewage system growth has been avoided by community-wide family water conservation programs.

18 Simple Ways to Conserve Water at home

Today I will share 18 simple ways to conserve water that you can use in your home right now!

We might as well begin in the part of the house where most of the water use, up to 80%, is being expended, the washroom. Now you might think that some of these tips are common sense, but it serves as a reminder as to what you should do to change some of your water conservation habits.

1. Do Not Waste Water By Keeping the Faucet Running

The washrooms faucet should not be running continuously while you’re brushing your teeth, washing your face, or while shaving. You will be saving between three and five gallons of water each minute your faucet is off.

That is a great deal of water! Instead, utilize the stopper in the sink to reuse the water that is collecting to wash your face or shave.

2. Just Flush When Required.

The toilet is not a waste-paper basket for tissues, cotton rounds, or various other little garbage. Also better, purge the number two every single time. It might. However, be wise only to purge your number ones every second go around.

3. Install Low Yielding Toilets

The low flow toilet these days uses approximately 1.28 gallons (4.84 Liters) per flush.  If you flushed 4000 times in one year using a low yielding toilet you will require 5,120 gallons of water.

Most household toilets they were mounted before 1980 and use 5 to 7 gallons of water per flush. Toilets that were mounted between 1980 and 1993 use approximately 3.5 gallons of water for each flush. And finally, most toilets that are in your home that are 1994 and newer will be using around 1.6 gallons for each use.

You can see the difference between regular toilets and low yielding toilets and how much water they both consume. 1.28 versus 1.6 gallons will make a considerable difference if every home and business switch over to low yielding toilets.

I could see in our near enough future that all toilet production will switch to low yielding toilets.

The video below will explain everything you need to know about the differences between a regular toilet and a low yielding toilet.

4. Install An Adjustable Toilet Flapper

Setting up a new toilet flapper that is adjustable will undoubtedly allow for adjustment of each per flush usage; You will be able to readjust the flush rate to the minimum each flush setup that accomplishes a single great flush each time.

5. Turn Your Regular Toilet to a Low Yielding Toilet the DIY Way!

If you have one of those toilets that use between 5 and 7 gallons of water per use, or even the ones that use 3.5 gallons; there is a way to lower the amount of water usage significantly.

Begin by opening the water basin, turn the water line off and flush the toilet. Now that the water basin is empty, place something in it that will replace the incoming water with the mass of an object. There are multitudes of things you can use for this to work.

What I see some people do is they place a pop bottle full of water in the basin. You could easily save a full pop bottle worth of water for every flush! It’s up to you what size of bottle you use but make sure the toilet has enough water to do its job. You won’t be conserving water if you need to double flush to take care of the waste.

6. Set Up Composting Toilets to Conserve Water

Composting toilets are the most efficient method to cut water waste from your washroom because they require no water in any way! Better still, they keep all the nutrients as well as pollutants out of waterways and also make them readily available for usage in NON-food agriculture.

Inspect the codes in your area to be sure they’re lawful before mounting one.

Watch the video below to find out everything you want to know about composting toilets from The Fit RV.

7. Check for leaking faucets as well as Toilets

It is simple to replace used washers as well as considering that a tiny leakage can throw away many gallons of water a day. It is well worth the effort to check for leaks.

The way to examine for toilet leaks is to put a couple of drops of food coloring in the storage tank. Doing this will allow you to see if the colored water shows up in the toilet bowl. This process should take about 10 minutes to complete. If the watercolor from inside the water basin appears in the toilet bowl, you have a leak. Not to stress, though. The majority of leaks are easily fixable the DIY way with a simple repair kit (Amazon Link).

You can find a lot of info on everything regarding toilets and DIY toilet repair at Familyhandyman.com.

Keep in mind that little leakages could build up promptly. A tap drip or unseen toilet leakage that amounts to just two tablespoons a minute comes to 15 gallons a day. That’s 105 gallons a week or 5,460 wasted gallons of water a year.

Do you know how long the parts in your toilet tank should last? There is no clear answer on this one because every household will have different types of toilets in use to varying increments per day.

Exchangeable parts such as flappers, rubber seals, and the refill valve could last some years. Nonetheless, aspects such as water treatment processes, toilet cleaners, and high water pressure can cause parts to deteriorate much more quickly.

One easy way to find out if the flapper needs changing is to touch it with your hands. If you get some black substance on your hands, then that will indicate the flapper is in need of replacing.

8. Check for surprise water leakages.

Look for hidden water leaks in other places in your home by reading your water meter. Precisely what you do is read the house water meter before and after a two-hour duration. Make sure to do this when there is no water in use. If the meter does not check out precisely the same, there is a leakage.

9. Take brief showers.

Showering and also bathing take in significant quantities of water. One good water conservation practice is to turn off the water while you’re soaping and scrubbing!

If you acquire a chill while doing this, then you can always install a low flow shower head. You can find those at any local hardware store or by clicking this Amazon link.

10. Use Bubble Bath While You’re In the Bath Tub.

This next way to conserve water may be an illusion, but it does work for some people. Pour a few drops of high foaming bubble bath in the tub. Instead of filling the bathtub full of warm water, stop a few inches short of what you’re used to pouring in the bathtub.

Shut the water off when the foaming of the bubble bath reaches the level of water you’re used to having. When you’re lying in the tub, you will have a few inches of water that is replaced with bubbles and will give you the illusion of water and will also help keep the water from cooling off longer.

How To Save Water In Your Kitchen

Saving Water in Kitchen
Learn How to Save Water In the Kitchen.

11. Use Ice Cubes to Keep Your Water Cold

Instead of running the faucet until the water gets cold, you should run the water directly into your cup from the start. By dropping a few ice cubes in your cup, in no time your water will be cold. This is one of those water conservation tips that I said is common sense but how many of you actually do this?

Another idea to have cold water while conserving water is to use the refrigerator to make your water cold. Place a bottle of room temperature water in the fridge and you’ll have an abundance of cold water.

12. Water Conservation While Cooking

In the kitchen area, don’t allow the faucet to run continuously while you are scrubbing the veggies or while preparing various other foods. Put a stopper in the sink instead. Similarly, do not utilize running water to thaw meat or different other frozen foods.

Defrost food overnight in the refrigerator, or better yet, use a rapid defroster plate (Amazon). I have one, and it really works as they advertise. It will begin to defrost food within minutes without the use of hot water or electricity.

Another way to wash vegetables is to fill a half bowl of warm water instead of cleaning them all under a running faucet. These water conservation tips are not rocket science, but they do help to conserve water in your home.

13. Stop Using Your Garbage Disposal

A garbage disposal requires running water to operate. Instead of using the garbage disposal to get rid of your food scraps, you should begin a compost pile.

You can then use the compost to enrich your garden’s soil. The enriched soil will be better for growing, and it will also be fantastic for your flower pots.

14. Do Not Prewash Dirty Dishes

I always used to rinse (prewash) my food plates before placing them in the dishwasher, but I did learn something interesting from a consumer report video.

Apparently, a dishwasher will run better when the plates are actually dirty and grimy as oppose to being pre-washed. I was kind of skeptical, but I tried it, and I either saw a small improvement or no difference at all in the performance of the dishwasher.

I guess if you want to conserve water and also money you should just let the dishwasher do its work!

Here is the video below from consumer reports about how to use your dishwasher efficiently.

15. Try Not Using the Dishwasher or Washing Machine for Anything Other than Full Loads.

When you’re you decide to use your washing machine, do not run half loads. Instead of half loads, try only using the washer for full loads.

Use this water conservation tip for the dishwasher also when doing full loads of dishes.

16. Install Faucet Aerators to Improve Water Conservation

If possible, wash your entire body with a showerhead that makes use of fewer than 2.5 gallons each minute. Is this a surprise to learn that we use an average of 7 gallons per year just to wash our hands in the sink?

An affordable tap aerator that supplies 2.5 gallons per minute ought to be great in the kitchen. In the bathroom, a 1-gallon-per-minute aerator will supply enough water to brush your teeth and wash your hands and face.

Saving Water Outside

Save Water When Washing Car
Tips For Saving Water Outdoors

17. Water plants While Conserving Water.

You should use a water can to water your plants garden versus your garden hose. Place a water barrel close to your garden and plants to collect rainwater. You can then dunk the water can in the water barrel for watering. It is also better to do it this way since the water in the barrel will be much warmer than from a hose and will be much better for the plant life and garden.

You should also give your plant a good soak once in a while rather than just sprinkling them with water all the time. If you soak them and then let them be for a while, you will promote better growth and have more in-depth and stronger roots.

18. Wash Your Car With a Waterless Car Wash! Keep Reading!

I saw an info commercial on tv a long while ago about a product called waterless carwash. It’s a spray that can wash your vehicle without using one drop of water.

Most people would think that it will scratch the car while using this product without rinsing with water, but it doesn’t. I tried it myself. You need to use common sense though; the car has to be relatively clean while using a product such as this one.

I heard that they invented this product because of water bans in many jurisdictions. These bans prevent its citizens from watering their lawn and washing their vehicle in hopes to conserve water.

Click this Amazon link to purchase a waterless car wash product. Also, watch the video below from Chemical Guys as they give you the facts about the misconceptions of waterless car wash.

Perform an Online Water Audit 

Interested to see how you are doing when it pertains to water conservation? I located this impressive home water audit online at Wateruseitwisely.com. It only takes a moment to complete, and you might be amazed at the outcome.

Doing one of these water audits might make you realize as to how much water you’re using; and how important it would be to learn ways for how to conserve water. You might also discover that you’re doing reasonably good in the water conservation field; and that only minor changes in your life will make it near perfect!

Conclusion

To conclude this water conservation article, most of these tips above will teach you how to save water in daily life. However, a bubble bath would certainly be out of the question following a massive disaster.

Like so many things in life, using water can be a meaningless procedure mired in habit. Nevertheless, numerous places in the United States, specifically The golden state of California, are going through a devastating dry spell. Thankfully where I live we rarely go through long periods of drought.

This is not only affecting the availability of freshwater consumption but likewise the much-needed supply of water to support farming. Whether you live in a drought-stricken area or otherwise, the lack of water is going to affect the expense of food for a long time.

Today, when you use the faucet, there it is, fresh, clear water. If you are fortunate after a disaster or crisis, you will indeed at least have some water. Let us hope that you will also have a lot of water in storage which you will undoubtedly have found out in advance to be parsimonious in its usage.

One thing to remember in all of this is that if you change your water consumption habits today, before any crisis or disaster; you will be better prepared to deal with the lack of water if the time comes that you have almost no water to spare. It won’t be so hard for you to know how to save water, and in return, you may ensure your survival.

Thank You and Please share so all of your friends can benefit from these water conservation tips.

Sanitary Toilet Paper Tablets / Wipes That Actually Work! Perfect BOB Item!

SaveSave